Nomenclature and species descriptions
I have followed the nomenclature used by The Plant List produced by Kew et al. Only species on their approved list have been included. That is not to say I share their opinion in every case, but it seems a good place to start.
M. adilii M.B. Guner & H. Duman
Narrow endemic around Baypazari North Central Turkey. Grows at 500-1,000m. Above sea level. Bulb ovoid 10-27mm., without bulbils. Leaves usually 1-3, 3.3-10.5mm long and 0.5-1cm wide, strongly folded, basally sheathing and often hooded. Scapes 1-2(3), 4-15cms. Tall and purplish blue, though this is often much less noticeable in cultivation. Pedicels of fertile flowers 1-3mm., not elongating in fruit. Sterile flower pedicels 0.3-1mm. Blackish to bright bluish violet flowers with minute white apical teeth. Anthers about 1mm. And blackish blue. Conspicuously dense heads. Sterile flowers distinctly globose and lighter blue. Seed capsules very large, about 1x1cms.
M. albiflorum (Tackh. & Boulos) Hosni
(syn. Leopoldia albiflora)
M. alpanicum Schchian
M. anotolicum Cowley &Ozhatay
Southern Greece and central Turkey
M. armeniacum Leichtlin ex Baker
(syn. Bellevalia aperta, Botryanthus sovitsianum, M. alezandrae, m. aperta, M. argei, M. colchicum, M.concinnum, M. conicum, M.cyanoviolacea, M. elegantulum, M. maweanum, M. micranthum, M. pauperulum, M. pendulum, M. polyanthemum, M. pyramidatum, M. schliemanii, M. sosnoskyi, M. szovitsianum, M. woronowii and Pseudomuscari apertum.).
M. artvinense Demirci & E Kaya
M. atlanticum Boiss & Reut
Eastern south Spain and Morocco
M. attilae Yildrim
M. aucheri (Boiss.) Baker
(syn. Botryoides aucheri, M. lingulatum, M. sintenisii, M. tubergenianum )
Usually 2 or 3 relatively wide leaves which have a grey/green upper surface and somewhat spathulate with a distinctly hooded tip. Leaves 5 to 20 cms. long and 5 to15 mm. wide. Mostly less than 10cms. tall, though there are more robust forms such as the plant distributed as M. tubergenianum. From stoney slopes and mountain pastures. A good garden plant with good foliage.
M. babachii Eker & Koyuncu
M. baeticum Blanca, Ruiz Rejon & Suar. -Saint
South and central Spain
M. botryoides (L.) Mill
(syn. Botryanthus alpestris, B. boreanus, B. candidus, B. compactus, B. conicus, B. festinus B. heldiechii, B. kerneri, B lelievrii, B. kerneri, B. odorus, B. vulgaris, Botryphile botryoides, Czekelia transylvanica, Hyacinthus botryoides, M. alpinum, M.carpaticum, M.heldriechii, M.hymenopherum, M. lelievrii, M. longifolium, M.polyphyllum, M.moteleya, M. pocuticum).
M. bourgaei Baker
Bulb 1-2.5cms. Leaves 3-6 (2-8), 5-15cms long and 2.5mm wide. Upper surface glaucous. Canaliculate. Apex obtuse. The leaves have a narrow median band. Raceme rather lax and not elongating in fruit, 2-3 cms. 15-40 flowers. 4-4.5 x 2.5-3.0mm. Teeth about 1mm and white or pale blue. A small plant with the sterile and fertile flowers pretty well the same colour Mountain pastures and stony slopes.
M. cazorlanum C. Seriano et al.
M. commutatum Guss.
(syn. Botryanthus acutilobum, B. albovirens, B. lafarine, Hyacinthus bifolium, H. commutatum, Muscari acutilobum, M. albovirens, M. lafarinae, M. levieri)
Bulb 1-4cms. Dark glossy brown tunics. Leaves 2-5, 10-30cmsx5-15mm. Scape 6-30cms. Raceme dense becoming lax in fruit. Fertile pedicels 2-6mm. Fertile flowers deep violet black with concolorous teeth. Sterileflowers paler and smaller. A very striking plant that does very well in a cold greenhouse and has survived in the garden here for over twenty years.
M. discolor Boiss. & Hausskin
Bulb 0.8-1.5 cms. 2-6 rather broad leaves, glaucus on upper surface. Scape 4-9 (15) cms. Often purplish. Raceme 1-2.5cms long. Flower tube blackish blue except for a 1-2mm white band below the large white lobes. Flowers not or scarsely constricted. Sterile flowers violet if present. A very handsome and distinct plant.
M. dolicanthum Woronow & Tron
(syn. M. steupii)
M. elmasii Yildrim
M. erdalii Ozhatay & Demirci
M. fertile Ravenna
M. filiforme Ravenna
A small desert bulb from Israel. Similar to M. inconstrictum. Leaves filiform to linear, twisted to coiled. Thicker and much less twisted in M. inconstrictum. Scape 5-7cms. Flowers not elongated as in M. inconstrictum. Pale violet grading to black perianth teeth.
M. haradjianii Briq. Ex Rech. f.
Central and south east Turkey.
M. heldreichii Boiss.
M. hermonense Ravenna
Lebanon to SW Syria.
M. hierosolymitanum Ravenna
M. hierosolymitanum Ravenna
M. kerkis Karlen
Endemic to the island of Samos. Fertile flowers blue-black with white teeth. Sterile flowers pale blue. The plants in cultivation belong largely from collections from Profitis Ilias.
M. kurdikum Maroofi
M. latifolium J.Kirk
(syn. Bellevalia monophylla, B. muscarioides)
Leaves 1 (2) broad and erect, enclosing the base of the scape and often hooded. 30-40 fertile flowers and 10-15 sterile. Bracts miniscule. Fertile flowers urn shaped, dark violet blue (79A). Sterile flowers paler (82B). an easily recognised and distinct species. A very good garden plant. Does seed around a bit. There is a white form.
M. lazulinum Ravenna
M. leucostomum Woronow ex czerniac
M. longistylum (Tackh. Boulos) Honi
(syn. L. longistylum)
M. macbeathianum Kit Tan
M. macrocarpum Sweet
(syn. M. creticum, M. luteum, Muscarimia flava, M. macrocarpa)
Fertile flowers 10 – 12mm., dusky violet in bud and yellow or yellowish when full out. Teeth brownish. A variable plant. Several clones in cultivation. Probably the best being the Cedric Morris plant distributed by Beth Chatto. Slow to bulk up and slow from seed.
M. massayanum C.Grunert
bulbs 2 – 6mm. No bulbils. Tunics ivory coloured. 2 – 5 deeply caniculate glaucous leaves with a cuculate apex. Scape 15 – 22 cms. and mauvish. Fertile flowers slightly waisted. Pinkish in bud then violacious. Flowers green or yellow/brown when going over. Teeth dark to blackish. Sterile flowers closed pink or bright violet pink. South and east turkey.
M. microstomum P.H.Davies and D.C.Stuart
Bulb 1 – 1.5 cms. No bulbils. Leaves 3 – 6, strongly caniculate, apex strongly hooded, with a glaucous upper surface and a whitish median line. Scape 8-20 (30) cms. Inflorescence dense at first then elongating. 25 -100 flowers. Fertile flowers deep china blue, abruptly narrowing to a tiny orifice 0.25 – 0.33mm. Teeth white and pedicels horizontal to deflexed 2.5 – 5mm. Sterile flowers same colour as fertile, with 3 – 5 mm pedicels. River marshes, wet meadows and sticky clays. Central Turkey
M. mirum Speta
M. neglectum Guss. Ex ten
(syn. Botryanthus atlantica, B. breviscapus, B. granatensis, B. mandraliscae, B. mordoanus, B. neglectus, B. odorus, B. racemosus, B. saulii. B. speciosus, B. strangwaysii, B. vulgaris, Etheiranthus jaquinii, Eubotrys odorata, Hyacinthus juncifolius, H. neglectus, H. racemosus, L. neumayeri, M. ammophilum, M. atlanticum, M. bootanensis, M. breviscapum, M. bucharicum, M. compacte, M. dolioforme, M. elwesii, M. flaccidum, M. fontqueri, M. gratense, M.grandifolium, M. grossheimii, M. letorneuxii, M. macranthum, M. mordoanum, M. neumayeri, M. odoratum, M. populeum, M. scorpii, M. speciosum, M. strangwaysii, M. vandasii, M. vinyalsi)
Bulb ovoid 1.5-2.5 cms. Long. Bulbils often present. Leaves 3-6(or more). 4-20 (-30) cms. long and 1.5-6mm wide with a non sheathing base and often tinged bronze or purplish. scape6-20 cms. Inflorescence 1.5-4 cms, dense at first becoming lax in fruit. Pedicels blueish. Minute lacerate white bracts. Fertile flowers very dark blue 3-5 mm long and 2-4 mm wide, tube constricted at apex with white teeth of about 1mm. Anthers violet. Filaments about0.6mm. Style 2mm long. Sterile flowers pale lilac blue and closed at apex. A very variable species. Southern Europe, the Mediterranean and east to Iran. The north african M. grandifolium are now usually included here.
M. olivetorum Blanca, Ruiz Rejon and Suar-Sant
M. parviflorum Desf.
(syn. Botryanthus autumnale, B. parviflorum, Hyacinthus parviflorum, M. autumnale, M. cilicicum, M. filifolium)
Bulb ovoid, tunic membranous and pale fuscous brown. 3-4 narrowly linear leaves 1.5 -2.5 mm. wide. Scape 7-23 cms. Long. Flowers 8-15 in a lax raceme. Bracts white and membranous to 1mm. Ascending pedicels 2.5-5mm. Long. Filaments 1mm. Anthers blue. Style 2mm. Perianth oblong to campanulate, sky blue3-4mm long and 2.5 -3mm wide. Sterile flowers very small and few or absent. Autumn flowering. Has a largely Mediterranean distribution. Does not survive very long outside here. Needs protection and a baking to flower well.
M. pulchellum Heldr. and Sant
(syn. Botryanthus lelievrii, B. pulchellus, B. sartorii, M. racemosus ssp. pulchellus)
Two recognised subspecies M. p. ssp. pulchellus on mainland SE Greece and M. p. ssp. clepsidoides in the Cyclades.
M. racemosum Mill
(syn. Hyacinthus muscari, M. ambrosiacum, Muscarimia muscari)
M. salah-ideii (Tackh and Boulos) Hosni
(syn. L. slah-ideii)
M. sandrasiacum Karlen
M. serpentinum Yildrim, Altioglu & Pirhan.
M. sirnakense Yild.
M. sivirhisardaghlarensis Yild. and B Selvi
Bulb 13-20 cms. X 12-18cms. No offsets. 3-5 usually 4 leaves, linear and canaliculated. Scape about 3 cms. 9-14 fertile flowers and 6-20 sterile. Fertile flowers dark violet to blackish with pale blue teeth. Sterile flowers white to light blue with slightly darker teeth. Capsule obovate-orbicular. From central Anatolia on stoney slopes, scree and steppe.
M. stenenanthum Freyn
M. tavoricum Ravenna
M. turkicum Vysal, Ertugrul &Dural
M. tuzgoluense Yild
M. vuralii Bagci and Dogu
Bulb with bulbils. 2-5 narrowly linear leaves. Somewhat like M. discolor. About 10 fertile, narrowly campanulate flowers and a few sterile ones. Fertile flowers deepest violet with prominent white recurved teeth, and with the white extending into the tube. A dainty plant. Turkey.